Bandarban is a district in South-Eastern Bangladesh under the administration of Chittagong Division. It is one of the three hill districts of Bangladesh and a part of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Bandarban has an area of 4,479 km² and the remotest district of the country, with the least population of 292,900. The district is constituted with 7 upazilas Alikadam, Thanchi, Naikhongchhari, Bandarban sadar, Rowangchhari, Ruma and Lama. Bandarban has been one of the most exotic tourist spots of the country. The three highest peaks of Bangladesh are located in the district.
In the early 15th century during the Arakanese kingdom when the capital was Mrauk U the territories was expended to the Chittagong. After the victory of arakan in the 16th century the area was mostly populated by the Arakanese decendents. The region was ruled by the Burmese descendants who called themselves Marma, It as an Arakanese pronunciation of Myanmar. The region was called Bohmong Htaung since the Arakanese rule. Bohmong Rajas ruled the area and the ancestors of the present Bohmong dynasty were the successor of the pegu king under the arakan’s rule in Chittagong. Maung Saw Pru was the governor of Chittagong who repulsed the Portuguese invasion with great valor and he was titled great general. During the British rule Frontier Tribes Act −22 was passed which pictured the creation of Chittagong hill tracts dealing the whole region along the south eastern border annexing with Tripura. A superintendent was appointed for administrative functions though later it was re-designated as that of Deputy Commissioner. In 19th century a border legal framework was established for the administrative system. Each circle was administrated by the circle chief. Their main responsibilities were to collect the revenues assisted by a headman and a karbari. During the World War 2 British military came to the area to stand against the Japanese invasion. The tribes held the reputation of rebellion throughout the history. Many tribal peoples fought in the war of liberation in 1971. After the war of liberation an insurgency were held by the shanti bahini who wanted to create an independent division with the chakma tribal but after the peace treaty bandarban stands as a locally administrated ethinic region. The area is now under the control of army although there are crimes like drugs cultivation and drug business is occurring.
The majority people of the town are Marma. There is a Tribal Cultural Institute here, which features a library and a museum. The economy of the district is heavily dependent on jumm farming and tourism. Jumm is a slash and burn agricultural technique. The tribal people grow many fruits too like banana, pine apple, papaya etc. most of the commercial sectors has been taken by the Bengali settlers. Bamboo and tobacco grows in a significant quantity but not a good source of money. The highest road of Bangladesh thanch alikadam in Bandar ban is under construction which is 2550 feet above the sea level estimated cost 1.17 billion. Among the tourists attraction some of the most popular places are keokradong, Buddha Dhatu Jadi, Niligiri, Bogalake, Nilachol, Nafakhum fall, jadipai fall and many others natural beauties.
The literacy rate is very low in the district although many N.G.Os and international organizations like UNISEF, UNDP are working with the government to spread knowledge and minimal education to the local and tribal people. There are 5 colleges, 1 technical college, 46 secondary schools, 302 primary schools, 28 community schools, 7 kindergartens, and 10 madrasas.