Noakhali is a district in South-eastern Bangladesh under the administration of the Chittagong Division. Earlier name of the district was Bhulua which was established in 1821 and later in 1868 it was named noakhali. It is bordered by Comilla to the north Meghna estuary and the Bay of Bengal to the south, Feni and Chittagong to the east and Bhola to the west. The total area of the district is 4202 sq km with the population of 3232000. The district represents an extensive flat and coastal land located on the tidal floodplain of the river meghna. There are nine upazilas in the district NoakhaliSadarUpazila, BegumganjUpazila, ChatkhilUpazila, CompaniganjUpazila, SenbaghUpazila, HatiyaUpazila, KabirhatUpazila, SonaimuriUpazila, Suborno Char Upazila.
The ancient name of Noakhali is Bhula. In 1660 the agriculture activities of the region was seriously affected by the floodwater flowing from Tripura. To recover the situation a canal dug in 1660 from the dakatia through ramganj to divert water flow to the junction of the river Meghna and Feni.After digging the long canal Bhuluna started to be known as Noakhali, that is originated from Noakhal that means New Canal.
Two hundred years ago South Shahbazpur, Lakshmipur, mainland of Noakhali district and a portion of present Feni district were included in the BhuluaPargana which is the current Noakhali. In 1821 Mr. Plyden, a salt agent got the additional charge of the region. He proposed the governor to create a new district Bhuluna and the governor accepted the proposal and a new district was constituted. It was named Noakhali in 1868 and in 1876 Noakhali district was divided into two sub-divisions. Feni Sub-division was constituted with Chhagalnaiyathana of Tippera, Mirshari of Chittagong, FeniPargana, Parshuram&Sonagazi. Sadar Sub-division was formed with the remaining areas. Regional violence provoked communal tension against the British before the partition in1947. In 1946 Hindu community took place in Noakhali and had done a massive killing, raping, looting. Prime minister of Bengal HuseynShaheedSuhrawardy stated that It was not a random incident and was quite well planned, organized and directed from a few local political leaders. Noakhali town got vanished in the river in 1951 as a result of erosion of mighty meghna. Sadar subdivision was divided into two sub divisions. During the liberation many encounter and guerilla attack was happened in Noakhali.
Average literacy rate of noakhali is 51.7%. Noted educational institutions are including Noakhali Government College (1963), Begumganj Government Pilot High School (1857), Hatiya Model Pilot High School (1912), Arun Chandra High School (1914), Kabirhat High School (1938), Bamni High School at Companiganj (1914), Bajra High School (1919), Noakhali Government Girl’s High School (1934), PauraKalyan High School (1940), Noakhali Zila School (1853), BamniAsiria Senior Madrasa (1915), Basur Hat Islamia Senior Madrasa (1923).
Noted personalities are including Raja Laksmanmanikya, Abdul MalekUkil (Politician), Professor MunirChowdhury (Leading intellectual and a pioneer in modern theater in Bangladesh), MotaherHossainChowdhury (Writer), BirshresthaRuhul Amin, SarjentJahurulHoque, AbdusSakur, (Writer), , ObaidulQuader (Politician), DilaraJaman (Actress), RamenduMajumder (Leading Intellectual in the areas of art, culture and drama), FerdousyMajumder (Actress), Professor EhtashemHaiderChowdhury (Martyred intellectual).